Статьи номера | Issue №42

Articles of the journal issue №2 (42) (2nd quarter of 2022)

All articles in PDF

Nikolay Al. Dukhno. Vladimir Nikolayevich Obraztsov’s contribution into the development of technical education in Russia

UDK: 378:656

Nikolay Al. Dukhno - Doctor of Law, professor, Russian University of Transport

Abstract. In the current paper there has been considered the scientific heritage left by V. N. Obraztsov, which resulted in evaluation of the scientific works of a prominent transport scientist who constantly took care of the development of the Moscow Institute of Railway Engineers, known today as the Russian University of Transport. The scientist understood the essence of education in a transport university, the importance of science in the training of railway engineers and strove to the filling the educational process with new knowledge, closely related to theory and transport practice. The separation of science and educational process destroyed education, turning it into an empty formality, where there was no new knowledge, no new skills that were urgently needed for the development of transport. The paper has considered the experience of teaching students, built on the ideas of the transport education development, aimed at training railway engineers. There has been drawn attention to the measures taken by the scientist to develop postgraduate studies in the transport university. The purpose of the current study was to understand V. N. Obraztsov methodology in the transport education, to present proposals for improving the training of transport specialists.

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Galina V. Vypkhanova. Urgent implementation trends and problems of strategic planning documents in the field of environmental development

UDK: 574(075.8)

Galina V. Vypkhanova - Doctor of Law, professor, Kutafin Moscow State Law University (MSAL)

The current paper has been prepared as part of the Strategic Academic Leadership Program “Priority-2030” and with the information support of the SPS ConsultantPlus.

Abstract. In the conditions of the modern civilizational crisis, the role of strategic planning is increasing to ensure environmental, climatic, biological, and other types of national security, environmental protection, and rational nature management. There has been given an assessment of strategic planning documents in the environmental sphere, considered the priority strategy areas as an integral part of the scientific trend of environmental law, the most important basis for state environmental policy and management. As a methodological basis for the development and implementation of environmental strategic planning documents, it is necessary to single out the principle of ecosystems (ecosystem approach), as well as the concept of sustainable development. Their application will contribute to solving the problems of strategic planning, including consistency, correlation between targets, tasks, indicators of strategies programs in the environmental sphere and strategy documents in other areas and trends. There have been given the proposals for adapting strategic planning in the environmental sphere and related areas to external and internal challenges and threats, and for increasing its effectiveness.

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Vitaly An. Maltsev. Features of legal regulation of transport insurance in India

UDK: 341.9:368

Vitaly An. Maltsev - Candidate of Law, associate professor, Academy of Labour and Social Relations

Abstract. The current paper has considered the specifics of vehicle insurance and civil liability of their owners under Indian law. There have been shown the stages of formation and development of insurance legislation, as well as there have been listed the regulatory legal acts in this area that are currently in force. The focus has been made on the analysis of Indian vehicle and insurance laws, as well as the central regulations and provisions of the government. There have been described the features of the terms used in Indian laws. There have been studied the provisions concerning compulsory and voluntary vehicle insurance. There have been identified the conditions and procedure for issuing insurance policies. There has been given a characteristic of the types of insurance policies, such as the insurance policy of the “third party” and the comprehensive insurance policy, as well as the terms of their validity. There have been shown the features of vehicle insurance used for commercial purposes. There have been indicated the main types of insured accidents, as well as risks that are not subject to compulsory insurance. There have been analyzed the factors influencing the establishment of the insurance tariff and insurance premium, including when introducing additional conditions into the contract. There has been presented the system of bonuses used in the calculation of the insurance premium. There has been made an analysis of the amendments made in 2019 to the Law on Vehicles, because of the increased tariffs in insured accidents, as well as compensation payments to victims. There have been considered the requirements of the legislation regarding the mandatory actions of the driver in the case of an accident or injury to a person. There have been discussed the actions of the insurance company (official) upon receipt of information about the insured accident. There have been analyzed the decisions of the Supreme Court of India related to violations of the terms of the insurance contract by the insurer and its obligations for insurance payments in special cases. There have been indicated some problematic facets that take place in certain types of transport insurance. There has been given a brief analysis of the current state of the Indian transport insurance market.

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Maksim V. Lavrukhin. Screening Partnership Program or private transportation security agencies of the United States of America

UDK: 347.82

Maksim V. Lavrukhin - Regional State Institution for Road Management of the Murmansk Region

Abstract. The current paper has considered the Screening Partnership Program instituted in 2004 by the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) in the United States, through which federal international airports have the right to employ accredited private security agencies to conduct screening and enforce security of the airport, instead of TSA officers. In the current paper, there have been also analyzed the problematic issues that have arisen in the application of such a program, as well as the financial costs of attracting such agencies, based on published electronic auctions.

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Elena L. Fedorova, Olga N. Skuybedina, Olga V. Semaeva, Irina V. Totskaya. Communicative features of the texts placed in transport (on the example of the subway) and their impact on the safety of passengers’ movement

UDK: 81.276.6(078)

Elena L. Fedorova - Candidate of Philological Sciences, Russian University of Transport

Olga N. Skuybedina - Candidate of Philosophical Sciences, associate professor, Russian University of Transport; National Research University MPEI

Olga V. Semaeva - Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences, NPPEI HE “Synergy”, National Research University MPEI

Irina V. Totskaya - Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences, associate professor, Rostov State Transport University (RSTU)

Abstract. The current paper has presented the analysis of the problem of discursiveness and perlocution of texts placed in transport (on the example of text on subway-car panels). The purpose of the study was to evaluate the informational, visual, and emotional impact on the state of the addressees; to identify the problems in the perception of information; to establish the influence of textual information on the safe movement of passengers. As a study result, there has been determined a special attention of addressees to the texts containing useful information that creates an atmosphere of comfort and safety in transport. There have been identified the problems with the assimilation of information among passengers, taking into consideration their mood at a given time, and there have been also established technical features of the text that arise problems with the perception of information, which reduces the degree of safety in the subway. There have been made the proposals to improve the texts on subway-car panels and screens in order to ensure safe passengers’ movement.

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Sergey Al. Semenov. Transport security and transport legal relations

UDK: 342.951:351.82

Sergey Al. Semenov - FBE Russian Maritime Security Service

Abstract. Public relations in the field of transport security are considered by scientists as part of transport relations. At the same time, the studied research works on this issue do not pay much attention to the argumentation of this point of view. The current paper has considered the main features that make it possible to attribute public relations in the field of transport security both to transport legal relations and to transport administrative-legal relations. For example, according to the author, such characteristics are the emergence of social relations related to transport security enforcement and their heterogeneity. Public relations of an administrative-legal nature related to transport security enforcement have the same traits as transport administrative-legal relations. The field of transport security enforcement is also characterized using the dispositive method, which is used together with the imperative method. International treaties of the Russian Federation also act as a source of law in the field of transport security enforcement.

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Roman V. Volkov, Elena Iv. Danilina. Pivotal management areas of digital transformation of a transport enterprise

UDK: 338.24:656

Roman V. Volkov - Candidate of Economic Sciences, Russian Open Academy of Transport, Russian University of Transport

Elena Iv. Danilina - Doctor of Economic Sciences, professor, Russian University of Transport

Abstract. The transport industry of the country can objectively become a driver of digitalization and economic growth, increasing GDP growth by reducing logistics costs and increasing the competitiveness of products. That is, the economic effect of transport digitalization has a national scale. One of the main factors in the process of transport digitalization is effective digital management both at individual enterprises and the industry. The process of digital transformation of the industry is a mechanism to form a new transformational management model. The logic of the transformational management model is determined by its main purpose to speed up the process and reduce the costs of digital transformation of the enterprise. The current paper has considered new pivotal management areas of digital transformation of a transport enterprise, such as business model transformation and transition to a platform production model; transformation of corporate culture; transformation of marketing and service; transition to a customer-oriented service. In the current situation, a new transformational model of transport enterprise management should fundamentally meet such requirements as to ensure the growth of decision-making speed through new intelligent technologies; support greater variability of processes, including processes in pivotal areas of transformation; constantly reduce the number of people involved in the process (decision-making and value increase chains); provide a change in the forms of interaction with customers; use all the possibilities of modern analytical systems; support a changing process of the management system itself on the principles of self-organization. The implementation of an accelerated and cost-effective digitalization strategy for a transport enterprise must begin with a change in pivotal management areas and priorities.

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Viktor Al. Dubovitsky, Nikolay S. Okorokov, Evgeny R. Yapparov. Concept of cognitive modules to justify possible application of general artificial intelligence in the transport industry

UDK: 004.81

Viktor Al. Dubovitsky - Russian University of Transport

Nikolay S. Okorokov - Russian University of Transport

Evgeny R. Yapparov - Candidate of Technical Sciences, Russian University of Transport

Abstract. Currently, the largest IT companies in the world are actively developing elements of a new generation of artificial intelligence. Such systems are theoretically capable to perform the main types of mental and cognitive activities inherent in humans. All these developments are gradually becoming an integral part of the coming changes in the field of intelligent computing. The transport industry also cannot stay away from these global trends, that makes to realize the necessity for further development and production of both individual elements of artificial intelligence, and universal intelligent systems. The current paper has considered the limitations of existing artificial intelligence systems and substantiated the necessity to develop a general artificial intelligence system based on a model of cognitive modules that use both “traditional” algorithms and machine learning algorithms in their structure.

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Lyudmila M. Maleshina, Anna V. Khorosheva. Introduction of intelligent transport technologies as a method to improve transport safety

UDK: 627.7/.8:656.08

Lyudmila M. Maleshina - Candidate of Technical Sciences, associate professor, Russian University of Transport

Anna V. Khorosheva - Candidate of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Vladimir Law Institute of the FPS of Russia

Abstract. The current paper has presented the study results to determine the safety level on Russian roads, as well as the residents’ confidence in innovative transport technologies. In the work there have been set the tasks to determine the level of injuries as a result of road traffic accidents and the main causes of their occurrence; features of Russian citizens’ attitude to intelligent transport technologies that can reduce the role of the human factor, and the effect of mistakes made by drivers. Statistical analysis was based on open data from the state bodies of the Russian Federation. There has been determined that despite the decreased absolute number of incidents, the severity of their consequences remains at a high level. There has been identified the main reason of traffic accidents, such as non-compliance with the traffic rules by drivers. The author has concluded that the introduction of intelligent technologies in transport, such as unmanned vehicles, is necessary to significantly reduce accident rate and traffic injuries. But the safe and efficient use of unmanned vehicles is only possible with high consumers’ confidence in technological innovations. The paper has focused on the fact that with the active introduction of digital technologies, their use is impossible without the preparation of an appropriate regulatory framework.

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Valery K. Tsechoev, Anna Al. Chebotareva. To the question of methods for improving efficiency of transport legal relations in the activities of the staff of the Main Directorate for Traffic Safety of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia

UDK: 342.951

Valery K. Tsechoev - Doctor of Law, professor, Rostov State Transport University (RSTU)

Anna Al. Chebotareva - Doctor of Law, associate professor, Russian University of Transport

Abstract. The authors of the current paper have raised the issue of methods for improving efficiency of transport legal relations in the activities of traffic police officers. There have been considered the approaches to understanding legal psychology in Soviet and modern jurisprudence, as well as emotional experiences, traditions, moods, and other mental processes of traffic police officers, which together reflect their subjective evaluative attitude to law, to subjects of law, to participants of transport relations. There has been drawn a conclusion about the necessity to supplement the norms of the current legislation on strengthening of the psychological component in the activities of traffic police officers.

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