Статьи рубрики | Criminal and legal measures of fight against transport crimes

Scientific specialties:

12.00.08 “Criminal law and criminology; Criminal Executive Law”

12.00.09 “Criminal Procedure”

12.00.12 “Criminalistics; Forensic activity; Operational investigations”

Aleksander Ol. Troitsky. The gaps in informing the subjects of prevention of illicit arms trafficking as a criminogenic factor of transport security enforcement

UDK: 343.16:343.344:656.2

Aleksander Ol. Troitsky - Russian University of Transport

Abstract. Countering the illegal arms trafficking in transport is one of the fundamental conditions for the fight against crime. Among other tasks, it is aimed at eliminating the causal complex that gives rise to these types of crimes and is aimed at carrying out preventive work to minimize possible risks in case of their inevitable commission. The problem is so significant since many crimes (murders, robberies, extortion, terrorist acts, etc.) are committed with the use of weapons. The current paper is devoted to the problem of preventing crimes related to the illegal arms trafficking caused by the gaps in informing the subjects of the prevention of illegal arms trafficking.

Статья целиком →

Dmitry V. Kuzakov. Review of scientific research devoted to the disclosure and investigation of crimes related to the provision of services for the transportation of passengers by water and air transport that do not meet the requirements for the safety of their life and health (Article 238 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation)

UDK: 343.9

Dmitry V. Kuzakov - Russian State University of Justice

Abstract. There have been analyzed scientific publications devoted to the disclosure and investigation of crimes connected with the services for the transportation of passengers by water and air transport that do not meet the life and health safety requirements. As a result of the study, there has been made a conclusion that at present there is an increase in the number of publications devoted to the topic in question, which suggests that in the foreseeable future, increased interest in certain issues at the investigation stage will result in the emergence of a unified approach to the disclosure and investigation of this type of crimes.

Статья целиком →

Valery An. Novikov, Valentina Iv. Shiyan. Hijacking of air or water transport means or railway rolling stock as a threat to transport security

UDK: 343.346.56:656.08

Valery An. Novikov - Candidate of Law, associate professor, Russian University of Transport

Valentina Iv. Shiyan - Candidate of Law, associate professor, Russian University of Transport

Abstract. All world countries consider transport security enforcement as the priority area of their activity, since the effective operation of all modes of transport determines, first of all, the state of protection of national interests from external and internal threats, the progressive development of all spheres of public life. In this regard, it is essential to eliminate threats to transport security, one of which is an infringement of the functioning (movement and operation) of transport means, i.e. their hijacking, as well as seizure for the purpose of hijacking, especially when such acts involve violence, use of weapons or commitment of crimes of a terrorist nature. The current paper contains the results of the analysis of scientific material and materials of judicial practice and statistical indicators of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia for the period from 2017 to 2021 on the crimes envisaged by Art. 211 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation, which made it possible to determine their current state, dynamics and tendencies, legal nature, to identify the debatability of a number of provisions (in terms of a specific object and a subject of crime), to pay attention to urgent issues of qualification, a stage of the crime, the specifics of the subjective side. There has been emphasized the characteristics of qualifying traits associated with the use of violence, weapons or items used as weapons, associated with terrorist activity. The study of normative legal acts regulating social relations in the related areas of their application has led to the formulation of definitions related to the subject of the analyzed crime. According to the authors, the insignificant absolute values of the analyzed type of crime recorded by official statistics are primarily due to the efficiency of the activities of the subjects of combating transport crimes and do not reduce their public danger degree.

Статья целиком →

Olga R. Afanasieva. State and tendencies of development of some types of transport crimes

UDK: 343.3/.7

Olga R. Afanasieva - Doctor of Law, associate professor, Russian University of Transport

Abstract. In order to develop a scientifically based system for transport crime prevention, it is necessary to conduct research on certain types of crime at transport facilities and transport infrastructure. In this regard, it seems important, relevant, and timely to conduct a study on the stated issues, since in modern conditions transport acquires even greater strategic importance and is considered as one of the life-supporting sectors of the country's economy. Various types of crimes are committed at transport and transport infrastructure facilities, both ordinary, environmental, related to drug and weapon trafficking, and related to commercial fraud and corruption. Based on official statistics, the current paper has presented the structure of transport criminality in 2021, given a general description of the tendencies in the development of commercial fraud and corruption, as well as those related to drug trafficking both in Russia and in its federal districts. For each type of transport crime, there has been estimated its territorial spread by identifying the federal districts in which there was a significant increase or decrease in the analyzed types of crimes. In the paper, there has been focused on the dynamics of the development of bribery in transport, including certain types of its components, as well as crimes qualified under Art. 228 and 228.1 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation, prevailing in the structure of crimes in the field of drug trafficking in transport. There have been drawn conclusions indicating that in order to form an effective criminal policy in the field of combating transport criminality, it is necessary to continue conducting additional study to monitor the state of transport crimes and the criminogenic factors that determine it.

Статья целиком →

Pavel B. Afanasiev, Georgy F. Koimshidi. Current state and tendencies of transport crime development

UDK: 343.988

Pavel B. Afanasiev - Candidate of Law, Russian University of Transport

Georgy F. Koimshidi - Candidate of Technical Sciences, associate professor, NRI of the Ministry of Interior of the Russian

Abstract. The current paper has substantiated the allocation of transport crimes as one of the independent types of crime in Russia, the study of which is not only of theoretical, but also of practical interest. In order to understand the main tendencies of transport crime development, the authors have studied official statistics for the period from 2017 to 2021. Based on the study of statistical data, there has been noted a wavy dynamic in transport crime development and periods of its growth and decrease, indicating average value of the number of registered crimes. There has been also shown the dynamics of the number of persons identified for committing transport crimes, which in 2021 does not correspond to the all-Russian one and is characterized by a slight increase after a four-year decrease. Based on data characterizing the territorial distribution of transport criminality there have been identified the North Caucasian Federal District and the Central Federal District as the region with the highest rates of crime growth. In addition, the current paper has presented the study results of the structure of transport criminality in terms of severity and a crime severity index, calculated based on the average maximum possible term of sentence for a crime. Due to the analysis of the data, there has been drawn a conclusion that there were negative changes in the qualitative characteristics of transport criminality.

Статья целиком →

Valery L. Popov. Examination of transport documents: concerns and solutions

UDK: 343.148.63

Valery L. Popov - Russian University of Transport

Abstract. The current development of transport can’t exist without its documentation support. In cases of their non-compliance with the established requirements, the transported cargo and goods can be confiscated, detained, or even simply lost. In addition, a transport document is not only logistics, but it is a wide range of all activities of the transport industry. Therefore, the document in the transport infrastructure is one of the important components of ensuring guaranteed and safe operation of transport. It often becomes not only an object, but also an instrument of a crime, which is confirmed by statistics for 2020. Therefore, one of the issues of ensuring guaranteed and safe operation of transport is a use of measures aimed at detecting and preventing forgery of transport documents. Even though most of the documents are being converted into e-format, which undoubtedly contributes to the solution of this problem, it will not be possible to eliminate the use of hard copies of documents soon. This concern can be solved only with the involvement of handwriting specialists being experienced in technical examination of documents. At the same time, the forgery of transport documents is mainly associated with the technical forgery of a signature, where there are several unresolved issues that nullify the process of handwriting expertise. In the current paper there have been proposed some ways to solve this concern.

Статья целиком →

Lyudmila M. Gruzdeva. Transport crimes in Russia during the COVID-19 pandemic

UDK: 343.346.8

Lyudmila M. Gruzdeva - Candidate of Technical Sciences, docent, Russian University of Transport

Abstract. The current paper has presented the assessment of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the digital characteristics of transport crimes based on the analysis of data of legal statistics of the Prosecutor General’s Office of the Russian Federation and the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia. The conducted study allowed making a conclusion that the restrictive measures on transportation, which contributed to the improvement of the criminal situation in transport, had a short-term positive effect, and in 2021 not only the level of crime, but also the danger of it increased. There has been noted that in 2020 there was an immense growth in the number of cybercrimes at the facilities of the transport industry. There has been presented an analysis of all criminal cases under Art. 274.1 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation during the years of 2019-2021, the records of which are in the State Antimonopoly Service "Pravosudie".

Статья целиком →

Iliya S. Krylov. Problems of countering hooliganism in various modes of transport

UDK: 343.343.3

Iliya S. Krylov - Russian MIA Main Directorate for Transport, ikrylov7@yandex.ru

Abstract. In recent years, there has been a dynamic growth in the passenger transportation sector, excepting the extraordinary situation in 2020 related to the application of restrictive measures. Under these conditions, the organization of work to ensure law and order in railway, water and air transport and to counter the so-called “destructive passengers” is of particular relevance and is one of the priority tasks facing the internal affairs bodies in transport. The current paper has considered the problematic issues of countering the passengers’ hooliganism in transport, requiring additional legislative regulation. There have been suggested some proposals to improve the efficiency of law enforcement agencies and the transport complex, aimed at minimizing the facts of hooliganism in transport.

Статья целиком →

Aleksandr S. Parshakov. Enforcement of railway transport security: historical aspects of prosecutor’s supervision

UDK: 347.963:656.2

Aleksandr S. Parshakov - Candidate of Law, reserve Colonel of Justice, Russian University of Transport, Military University of the Ministry of Defense of Russia, alexandrparshakov@yandex.ru

Abstract. The current paper has discussed the features of the implementation of prosecutor’s supervision over the law enforcement while enforcing railway transport security. There have been studied historical and modern approaches to ensuring law and order at the facilities of the country's transport system. There has been emphasized that, in relation to the supervision of the law enforcement in railway transport, since the formation of the Soviet prosecutor's office a hundred years ago, there have been requirements for the specialization of supervision over this type of transport. Throughout the Soviet period, the functions of the activities of the transport prosecutor’s offices were closely related to issues of transport security. At the same time, in various periods of the country’s history, supervision in this area either intensified, including through setting up specialized prosecutor’s offices, or was carried out in a general manner by territorial prosecutor’s offices. Speaking about the present period of enforcing railway transport security, there has been emphasized the specifics of prosecutor’s supervision in modern conditions, which lies in the complex, systemic nature of this activity. Considering the practice of prosecutor’s supervision over the law enforcement while enforcing railway transport security, the author has actively relied on the analysis of the regulatory legal framework that regulated the indicated direction of supervision at each historical period.

Статья целиком →

Vladimir Al. Zhavoronkov. Transformation of forensic examination of vehicle markings and its methods at the turn of the XX―XXI centuries

UDK: 347.3/7

Vladimir Al. Zhavoronkov - Candidate of Law, Russian University of Transport, telec121.57@mail.ru

Abstract. The current paper deals with the formation and development of forensic examination of vehicle markings in Russia in the period from the second half of the XX century to the present days. The author has studied the origins of forensic examination, the development and improvement of its methods. Along with the conventional methods that were successfully used up to date, the paper has also highlighted the methods for restoring markings that appeared due to the latest scientific developments both in our country and abroad, including methods related to information and digital technologies. The paper has listed prominent Russian scholars who made a significant contribution to the development of forensic examination, including those currently working at the Law Institute of the Russian University of Transport. Some attention has been paid to the legal framework of forensic examination of vehicle markings, as well as to the development of the structure of the subdivisions of the forensic services of the Main Department of Internal Affairs of Moscow in the specified period.

Статья целиком →