Статьи рубрики | Transport economy

Scientific specialty:

5.2.3. Regional and sectoral economics (economic sciences)

Sergey Al. Pravkin. The mechanism for implementing investments in accordance with the goals and objectives of the Transport Strategy of the Russian Federation

UDK: 338.47

Sergey Al. Pravkin - Candidate of Law, associate professor, Russian University of Transport (MIIT)

Abstract. The mechanism for implementing investments in the Russian Federation in accordance with the Transport Strategy of the Russian Federation for the period until 2030 with a forecast for the period until 2035, approved by Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation of November 27, 2021 No. 3363-r, is based on the use of various forms of financing the transport industry, on the use of public, mixed and private investment models using budget investments and such civil contracts as leasing, contracting, agreement on the establishment of an investment partnership, etc. The establishment of special economic zones and financing their development, the development of mechanisms for attracting private investment, the determination of legal regimes for financing targeted government programs and projects, public-private partnerships and concessions are of great importance for the transport industry. The transport industry requires constant legislative, technical and information improvements. The transport development program laid down in the Transport Strategy keeps being constantly supplemented and expanded. The relevance of the current study is in the fact that in 2024 the first stage of the implementation of the Transport Strategy finishes and there is an expectation in a slight reduction in the amount of funding for the activities of the comprehensive plan for modernization and expansion of the main infrastructure compared to the planned level of expenditures. Accordingly, there is a probability of incomplete implementation of part of infrastructure projects planned by 2030. The problem of the study is to find models and sources of financing for the transport infrastructure to fully implement the goals and objectives of the Transport Strategy, to determine which methods of financing will remain, what new methods of financing can be applied to achieve the final goals and an innovative option for the development of the entire transport industry. To solve the problems associated with finding an appropriate financing mechanism in the transport industry, there has been proposed to enter into agreements on the protection and promotion of capital investments to the organizations implementing priority transport projects. The use of tax incentives, special tax regimes, project financing of public-private partnerships and mixed agreements with investment conditions, utilitarian digital rights, and “green” investing significantly increase regulatory regulation when investing in the transport industry. A new approach, proposed to solve problems associated with investing in the transport industry, is a proposal to invest the transport complex based on special digital platforms, using digital financial assets and utilitarian digital rights along with conventional financial instruments. To implement the goals and objectives of the Strategy, there has been conducted a formal legal analysis of changes in the regulatory framework of the transport complex in 2024. There has been studied the progress of the implementation of transport projects, the variety of projects which can be successfully implemented, for which of them it is still necessary to find additional sources and models of financing and adopt the necessary regulatory legal acts based on a risk-based approach, since a big risk in the transport complex is the risk of obsolescence of the regulatory framework that ensures the development of the transport complex and makes the basis for reducing risks and injuries.

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Irina Iv. Shatskaya, Lyudmila M. Maleshina. Companies of the transport sector of the Russian economy: analysis of investment attractiveness

UDK: 338.47

Irina Iv. Shatskaya - Candidate of Economic Sciences, associate professor, Russian University of Transport (MIIT)

Lyudmila M. Maleshina - Candidate of Technical Sciences, associate professor, Russian University of Transport (MIIT)

Abstract. The relevance of the analysis of the investment attractiveness of companies in the transport sector is due to the presence of projects aimed at the development, establishment, and digitalization of transport infrastructure facilities, which are associated with high costs in a highly competitive environment. The current paper has presented the results of an estimation of the investment attractiveness of Russian leaders in terms of market capitalization in the sector “Transport”, whose shares are traded on the stock market of the Moscow Exchange (MOEX). The authors have considered a set of analytics tools for potential investors that will help with the selection of promising companies for investment in the transport sector, which is one of the most widely diversified, and avoid unjustified risks with investing money. There has been concluded that there is no single methodology for estimating the investment attractiveness of companies, which has allowed the authors to propose their own approach to solving this problem.

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Igor V. Evstifeev, Mariya An. Matveeva. Legal regulation and prospects for the use of cryptocurrencies in transport

UDK: 336.7:347.7

Igor V. Evstifeev - LLC “EnergoGroup Development”

Mariya An. Matveeva - Candidate of Law, associate professor, Russian University of Transport (MIIT)

Abstract. The current paper has presented the discussion of the possible prospects for using cryptocurrencies as an alternative means of payment in international trade, the transport industry, as well as the prospects for using cryptocurrencies instead of traditional international currencies (dollar and euro), which have lost their leading positions in recent years, primarily for political reasons. There have been considered problematic issues of legal regulation of cryptocurrencies at the international level, in Russian legislation. There have been shown approaches of different states to the regulation of cryptocurrency relations. The main purpose of the paper was to study the gaps and contradictions in Russian and international legislation in the field of regulation of cryptocurrency relations. Achieving the goals is carried out by solving such problems as studying the prerequisites for the development of cryptocurrency as a means of payment, studying the theoretical and legal aspects of the legal regulation of cryptocurrency relations in Russia and abroad.

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Roman V. Volkov, Elena Iv. Danilina. Pivotal management areas of digital transformation of a transport enterprise

UDK: 338.24:656

Roman V. Volkov - Candidate of Economic Sciences, Russian Open Academy of Transport, Russian University of Transport

Elena Iv. Danilina - Doctor of Economic Sciences, professor, Russian University of Transport

Abstract. The transport industry of the country can objectively become a driver of digitalization and economic growth, increasing GDP growth by reducing logistics costs and increasing the competitiveness of products. That is, the economic effect of transport digitalization has a national scale. One of the main factors in the process of transport digitalization is effective digital management both at individual enterprises and the industry. The process of digital transformation of the industry is a mechanism to form a new transformational management model. The logic of the transformational management model is determined by its main purpose to speed up the process and reduce the costs of digital transformation of the enterprise. The current paper has considered new pivotal management areas of digital transformation of a transport enterprise, such as business model transformation and transition to a platform production model; transformation of corporate culture; transformation of marketing and service; transition to a customer-oriented service. In the current situation, a new transformational model of transport enterprise management should fundamentally meet such requirements as to ensure the growth of decision-making speed through new intelligent technologies; support greater variability of processes, including processes in pivotal areas of transformation; constantly reduce the number of people involved in the process (decision-making and value increase chains); provide a change in the forms of interaction with customers; use all the possibilities of modern analytical systems; support a changing process of the management system itself on the principles of self-organization. The implementation of an accelerated and cost-effective digitalization strategy for a transport enterprise must begin with a change in pivotal management areas and priorities.

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Alisa V. Yanelis. Formation of a transport service quality management system

UDK: 656.6/8

Alisa V. Yanelis - Russian University of Transport

Abstract. In order to improve the service provided to passengers, there have been studied the competitive positions of the organization, current and potential opportunities of competing enterprises. Based on the study results, there have been calculated possible ways of market development of the activities of transport organizations. The current paper has presented a quality management system for transport services, covering the main stages, parts, mechanisms for its research and improvement. For this, there have been considered main stages of the service quality management of the transport company. The author has identified the components of the quality of passenger service and their impact on the competitiveness of the company. The author has also identified priority areas for improving the service quality for a passenger railway transport company. The paper has demonstrated the Ishikawa’s cause-and-effect diagram in the analysis of the quality of passenger service, for which aspects that affect the service quality were analyzed. Determining priority guidelines for improving quality, the management of the railway organization has a selective influence on specific elements and forms a strategy aimed at achieving the expected level of competitiveness of enterprise.

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Elena V. Sandyreva. Some issues of outsourcing application in transport logistics in the context of the coronavirus pandemic

UDK: 338.46:35(476)

Elena V. Sandyreva - post graduate of the Law Institute of the Russian University of Transport

Abstract. The current paper has considered of the application of the outsourcing mechanism in the field of transport logistics in the context of the economic crisis caused by the coronavirus pandemic. There have been shown the main trends in the development of transport logistics, new phenomena that have appeared in this area as a result of the pandemic. There has been given a predictive assessment of the further development of outsourcing relations in the transport sector. There has been proved that this form of economic activity will retain its importance for the future and will contribute to the increase in the efficiency of transport logistics.

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Sergey A. Pravkin, Vera V. Smirnova. Organizational and legal environment for real estate management and improvement of investment activities of the open joint stock company “Russian Railways”

UDK: 338.47:656.2

Sergey A. Pravkin - Candidate of Law, docent, associate professor of the department ‘Administrative Law, Ecological Law, Information Law’, Law Institute, Russian University of Transport

Vera V. Smirnova - Candidate of Law, docent, associate professor of the department ‘Administrative Law, Ecological Law, Information Law’, Law Institute, Russian University of Transport

Abstract. The current paper has analyzed the organizational and legal foundations of property management and transactions with the holding's real estate. The open joint stock company (JSC) “Russian Railways” completed the transition to a vertically-oriented management in accordance with the types of activities and the transition from horizontal management based on the territorial principle to the management of such business units as logistics, infrastructure, passenger traffic, freight traffic, etc. For this purpose, there were created directorates in accordance with the types of activities. These types of activities (management branches) included certain areas of business, which were facilitated by measures for the implementation of corporate building and organizational development. Real estate management is also carried out in the respective divisions vertically with the distribution of competence. There are applied uniform principles of property accounting and control of the parent company over subsidiaries at all levels. Directions in the use of real estate of the JSC “Russian Railways” have been outlined in the Functional Real Estate Management Strategy of the Russian Railways Holding No. 1357R issued on June 29, 2012, in accordance with which an effective real estate management model should be created. Much has already been done. However, there are still unresolved problems in the field of real estate management in the JSC “Russian Railways”. First of all, they are associated with the current deterioration of individual infrastructure facilities, including real estate being on the balance of the holding. In order to ensure a balance of interests of the state, private shareholders, the mechanism of public-private partnership, as well as other models of foreign investment in real estate, did not find proper application in comparison with foreign countries. The current study has analyzed the policy documents, the activities of the holding, corporate legal framework in decision-making. There have been made individual proposals to improve the organizational and legal environment for managing the company's property, including those related to the development of public-private partnerships.

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Aleksandr P. Ovechkin. Currency transactions between resident transport organizations and other residents and non-residents

UDK: 336.71:339.74:656

Aleksandr P. Ovechkin - Doctor of Philosophical Sciences, professor, professor of the department ‘Administrative Law, Ecological Law, Information Law’ of the Law Institute of the Russian University of Transport

Abstract. Modern foreign economic, foreign politic and tourism activities, organization of international cultural exchange are impossible without appropriate transport support. In the course of the transportation process, transport organizations have to not only solve various kinds of problems associated with movement in time and space, but also fulfill their accounting obligations with residents and non-residents. Consequently, the active involvement of Russian transport organizations in various areas of the modern international process includes them not only in the field of the transportation process, but also makes them active participants in currency relations. Therefore, one of the most relevant aspects of the study of international transport is the legal regulation of foreign exchange transactions performed by transport organizations-residents with other residents and non-residents. Meanwhile, the problem of including transport organizations in the orbit of currency and legal relations has not received proper attention in research materials. In the current paper, the author has considered only some of its aspects. In particular, the paper has given a definition of the concept of a resident transport organization, examined the currency relations of resident transport organizations with resident intermediaries. The paper has also identified some problems arising in the field of currency legal relations in the goods and passengers’ transportation, as well as the issues associated with the functioning of the transport infrastructure.

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Aleksey V. Gubin. The impact of performance and efficiency indicators of the Russian customs authorities’ work on the sphere of transport services in international trade

UDK: 339.5

Aleksey V. Gubin - Candidate of Economic Sciences, docent, associate professor of the department ‘Customs law and organization of the customs affairs’ of the Law Institute of the Russian University of Transport

Abstract. The performance and efficiency of the Russian customs authorities’ work are of a significant effect on many economic branches of the country, including the development of transport. The development of international trade is impossible without providing the services for the international transportation of goods. In turn, the results of providing these services are influenced by the execution of the controlling and supervisory powers of the customs authorities. The subject of the current paper is the dependence of transport services for the international transportation of goods on the performance and efficiency indicators of the Russian customs authorities’ work. Currently, there is a multidimensional system to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of the customs authorities’ work, which consists of several levels, including a large number of different indicators. The purpose of the paper is to consider indicators that have an impact on the transport services provided for international transportation of goods. There is a significant number of research works devoted to the problems of assessing the performance and efficiency of the customs authorities’ work. However, the impact of these indicators on the transport sector is generally not considered. Nevertheless, it is clear that the customs sphere and the transport industry are inextricably correlated and have a mutual influence. Therefore, the analysis of the performance and efficiency indicators of customs authorities’ work in the international transportation of goods is of great relevance. The paper has considered the performance and efficiency indicators of the customs authorities’ work in the road, rail, water and air transport, which is due to the peculiarities of customs operations related to certain modes of transport. Also the indicators of the work of customs authorities are of great interest. These indicators are of interest as external factors influencing the efficiency of transport services. Thus, the increase in the performance and efficiency indicators of customs authorities’ work improve the indicators of transport services in the field of international transport. When creating transport corridors, and calculating the parameters of international transportation, these indicators should be taken into account as indicators of the external environment.

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Alla V. Pavlova. Legal aspects of the digital transformation of railway transport and logistics

UDK: 347.463:656.2

Alla V. Pavlova - Candidate of Economic Sciences, associate professor of the department 'Customs Law and Organization of the Customs Affairs' of the Law Institute of the Russian University of Transport

Abstract. Modern information technologies and technical means, together with the development of scientific and technological progress, eliminate the boundaries between technology and science and contribute to the penetration of innovation in all spheres and sectors of the economy and society. The formation of a digital economy is a strategic development goal of the Russian Federation. Various spheres and sectors of the Russian economy are going through a digital transformation based on digital technologies. Railway transport and logistics related to the field of transport and logistics are no exception. The current paper discusses the current legal and regulatory aspects governing the transport and logistics field in Russia on the example of railway transport logistics and the regulation of its digitalization. These legislative documents make it possible to carry out digital public regulation and management in order to achieve the goals and maximum effect.

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