Статьи рубрики | History of transport law

Scientific specialty:

12.00.01 “Theory and history of law and state; History of doctrine of law and state”

Nikolay Al. Dukhno. Transport education regulators in early 1941. Evaluation of the work experience of Georgy Konstantinovich Evgrafov, professor of MIIT

UDK: 656:94(47)


Nikolay Al. Dukhno - Doctor of Law, professor, Russian University of Transport


Abstract. In the pre-war years, scientists at the Moscow Institute of Railway Transport Engineers (MIIT) did not think about whether a transport education was necessary or not. They tried to develop transport education, continuing the tradition of their predecessors, who opened transport schools based on classical science. For more than three centuries, there has been a process of developing ways to transform theory into engineering knowledge, directing it to the development of transport capabilities. A prominent supporter of the development of transport education in the 1930s–1940s was Georgy Konstantinovich Evgrafov, professor of MIIT. In fundamental scientific works, the scientist revealed the core of theoretical thoughts, which became a solid foundation for the development of applied transport sciences. It required a professional team capable to conduct research, form transport science and embody it in the minds of a new generation of transport specialists. Such a team, according to G.K. Evgrafov, should have been a department. In his annual reports to the teaching and student staff G.K. Evgrafov according to his scientific values and the skill of an experienced professor, assessed the work of each department over the past year and set tasks for the development of transport education for transport engineers of a new generation. Being the deputy head of MIIT for educational and scientific work, the professor was able to convince his opponent with evidence obtained from scientific sources. His experience proved the facts of the positive organizational and scientific work of the university under the influence of a person with a high scientific outlook, with a rich moral and ethical thinking enriched with legal ideas. The purpose of our study was to establish ways to combine law with other types of transport education regulators and determine their impact on the quality of training specialists demanded by transport in the pre-war period. The research methodology was scientific and cognitive methods for evaluating many materials that reflected the formation of transport education in Russia and at the Moscow Institute of Railway Engineers, the origins of which come from the Institute of Railway Engineers founded in 1896. The analysis of information about transport education was combined with the comparative method and the author’s evaluative techniques, acquired by 40 years of experience and the author’s skills in scientific and teaching activities at the universities.

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Nikolay Al. Dukhno. Vladimir Nikolayevich Obraztsov’s contribution into the development of technical education in Russia

UDK: 378:656


Nikolay Al. Dukhno - Doctor of Law, professor, Russian University of Transport


Abstract. In the current paper there has been considered the scientific heritage left by V. N. Obraztsov, which resulted in evaluation of the scientific works of a prominent transport scientist who constantly took care of the development of the Moscow Institute of Railway Engineers, known today as the Russian University of Transport. The scientist understood the essence of education in a transport university, the importance of science in the training of railway engineers and strove to the filling the educational process with new knowledge, closely related to theory and transport practice. The separation of science and educational process destroyed education, turning it into an empty formality, where there was no new knowledge, no new skills that were urgently needed for the development of transport. The paper has considered the experience of teaching students, built on the ideas of the transport education development, aimed at training railway engineers. There has been drawn attention to the measures taken by the scientist to develop postgraduate studies in the transport university. The purpose of the current study was to understand V. N. Obraztsov methodology in the transport education, to present proposals for improving the training of transport specialists.

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Yuliya V. Ryzhova. The history of the establishment and activities of the transport police in the Russian Empire

UDK: 342.51


Yuliya V. Ryzhova - The history of the establishment and activities of the transport police in the Russian Empire


Abstract. The historical experience of railways’ functioning in the Russian Empire and their protection is of particular interest nowadays. At the same time, the experience of transport police functioning, which was established in 1867 and existed until 1917, remains little studied. The current paper has considered the stages of evolution of the transport police activities in the Russian Empire on the example of the largest formations of the Separate Corps of Gendarmes, i.e. the gendarmerie police departments of railways, formed in the second half of the XIX-th century. Being formed in difficult domestic political conditions, the gendarmerie police departments of the railways played a significant role in the police system for enforcing the internal security of the Russian Empire. The establishment of specialized gendarmerie formations made it possible to provide all the necessary types of protection on the railways. The paper has focused on the fact that, being, in fact, the political police, the gendarmerie police departments of the railways also performed a number of special functions assigned to them. The general principles of the activities of these departments were as follows: strict centralization, clear organization and interaction with a number of central state institutions of the Russian Empire. The paper has considered the main activities of the gendarmerie police departments of railways related to enforcing transport security in the Russian Empire.

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Nikolay Al. Dukhno. Legal science and engineering knowledge

UDK: 347.463:62


Nikolay Al. Dukhno - Doctor of Law, professor, Russian University of Transport


Abstract. At the end of the XIX-th century, in the early years of the formation of the Moscow Engineering School (now the Russian University of Transport) with the participation of the Ministry of Railways, legal science (jurisprudence) was included in the process of training engineers. The jurisprudence formed on the basis of theoretical legal science became the subject of attention of the Ministry of Railways. In 1899, for the Moscow Engineering School, the department developed and approved a special program for teaching legal sciences to students. The program and the course of jurisprudence prepared turned out to be unique in its content and structure. Thinking transport workers felt the engineer’s need for legal knowledge as a legal source of information. The engineer, in addition to special knowledge and skills, was required to be a highly cultured person, to know and understand the legal mechanisms of the railways structure and operation, to stand firmly on legal principles in his professional activities. The evaluation of the program and the course of jurisprudence, compared with the study of law today, made it possible to make conclusions about the directions for the formation of the legal knowledge of engineers, whose training is carried out at the Russian University of Transport. The purpose of the current study was to obtain information about the place of legal knowledge in the structure of engineering knowledge, formed at the early stage of setting up the Moscow Engineering School. The content of legal knowledge can become a source of information for the development of concepts of legal influence on the development of engineering knowledge at the Russian University of Transport at the present. The methodology of the research was made by the scientific methods of cognition of the information about the ways of setting up a new transport university; about the methods of forming the engineering knowledge structure; about the methods of determining the content of legal knowledge in the engineering knowledge structure. Methods for identifying, evaluating, analyzing, comparing, verifying information about training of engineers in the XIX-th century accompanied the accumulation of knowledge and the formulation of the conclusions set forth in the paper. The method of comparing the obtained data with knowledge, confirmed by the rich research experience of the author, has developed the conditions for reasonable conclusions on the current study.

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Valeriy K. Tsechoev. Liberalization of public relations and organizational and legal improvement of the Soviet courts, militia and justice in the 1953―1960s

UDK: 342.56(091)


Valeriy K. Tsechoev - Doctor of Law, professor of the faculty of economics, management and law of the Rostov state transport university (RSTU)


Abstract. The current paper has considered the improvement of the work and reform of the Soviet courts, militia, including transport, justice, in the 1953-1960s. Attention has been focused on the organizational and legal foundations of the Soviet law enforcement system in connection with changes in the judicial system and in the bodies and institutions of justice.

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Sergey V. Sekushin. Retrospective review of the development of legal regimes of railway property and modern regulation in Russia

UDK: 656.2


Sergey V. Sekushin - Deputy CEO of the Joint-Stock Company “Institute of Transport Economics and Development”


Abstract. The current paper has article provided a retrospective historical analysis of public relations governing the ownership of railways in Russia and abroad. There has been made a comparative review of the entire spectrum of possible legal regimes for the use of public railway infrastructure facilities in modern Russia (using the examples of JSC “Russian Railways”, Joint Stock Company “Railways of Yakutia”, “Yamal Railway Company”, etc.), including projects of new lines developed on the basis of public-private partnership.

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Yuriy Al. Tarasenko. The beginning of legal regulation of transportation in Russia

UDK: 347.463


Yuriy Al. Tarasenko - Candidate of Law, associate professor of the department ‘Civil law, international private law and civil procedure’ of the Law Institute of the Russian University of Transport


Abstract. The relations on the cargo (goods) transportation originated in ancient Russia. However, the transportation of this period was characterized by the fact that the owner of the cargo was at the same time the carrier. As a result, the rules governing transportation as a separate type of obligation were not formed. This situation was maintained throughout the entire specific period of Russia (XII ― XIV centuries) and the Moscow centralized state (XV ― XVII centuries). At that time the norms of the law did not concern transportation issues. For the first time, legal regulation of transportation, as a relationship between the owner of the cargo and the owner of the ship, appeared in the 18th century. Having no domestic origins, the normative regulation of transportation was entirely borrowed from abroad. The model for Russian acts in the field of transportation was at first the norms of Dutch and partly German legislation, and later French. This situation continued until the first half of the 19th century, when the Commercial Charter was adopted, which contained the starting points of transportation and the charters of the first companies engaged in transportation.

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Yury Iv. Petrov. The results of transformations in the control system of communication routes under the reign of Alexander I

UDK: 656.2:94(47)


Yury Iv. Petrov - Candidate of Historical Sciences, docent, associate professor of the department ‘Customs Law and Organization of the Customs Affairs’ of the Law Institute of the Russian University of Transport


Abstract. Based on the analysis of legal acts adopted during the reign of Emperors Paul I and Alexander I, the current paper has traced the course of measures aimed at transforming the transport industry at the end of the 18th - first quarter of the 19th century. The analysis has shown that the serious steps of the governing of Alexander I were preceded by the measures of his father Paul I, which created the preconditions for improving transport legislation, which raised the transport industry to a new level that it had never reached before. The paper has considered the legal acts that formed the basis for the development of such new institutions as the Office of Water and Land Communications, the Corps of Railway Engineers and the educational institution of the Institute of the Corps of Railway Engineers, which solved serious practical matters, primarily in the field of sea communication routes.

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Nikolay Al. Dukhno, Viktoriya N. Samokhina. The ideologist of establishing a new type of transport university

UDK: 347.4(075.32)


Nikolay Al. Dukhno - Doctor of Law, professor, advisor to the administration of the Russian University of Transport

Viktoriya N. Samokhina - assistant of the advisor to the administration of the Russian University of Transport


Abstract. The study of the development of transport universities contributes to the restoration of a complete and comprehensive picture of the development of transport education as the main means of educating transport workers. When getting acquainted with the origins of establishing the Moscow Engineering School, the first predecessor on the long and eventful path of the formation of the Russian University of Transport, there have emerged a lot of new facts. The establishment of the Moscow Engineering School in 1896 marked the beginning of the crystallization of a new methodology for training engineers. The great scientist and teacher Nikolai Pavlovich Petrov became the founder, scientific ideologist of this method of training railway engineers. His ideas, deeply imbued with scientific thought, became the basis of a new methodology for teaching future engineers that had not been used in Russian universities before. He also prepared a training program for engineers. The new methodology included enhanced theoretical teaching while reducing classroom time; determination of criteria indicating how much and what theory should be included in the educational process for the formation of engineering knowledge; requirements for teachers of engineering sciences; identifying ways of practical training in the training of engineers. N.P. Petrov became an ideologist, the founder of the concept of establishing a new transport university. The study of the scientific heritage of N.P. Petrov should be included in the educational process of training transport engineers, developing in everyone the ability for engineering thinking and interest in engineering knowledge.

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Oleg An. Chaptykov, Aleksandr N. Kharitonov, Oleg V. Mokhovikov. Working features of operational search units of transport police

UDK: 343.985


Oleg An. Chaptykov - lecturer at the department of training police officers in the field of transport security, Center for training police officers for public order protection of the All-Russian Institute for advanced training of police officers of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation

Aleksandr N. Kharitonov - Doctor of Law, professor of the department of training police officers in the field of transport security, Center for training police officers for public order protection of the All-Russian Institute for advanced training of police officers of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation

Oleg V. Mokhovikov - head of the department of training police officers in the field of transport security, Center for training police officers for public order protection of the All-Russian Institute for advanced training of police officers of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation


Abstract. The current paper has considered the history of the formation of criminal investigation units of the railway police in Russia until October 1917. The activities to counteract terrorist threats during the period of revolutionary upheavals had a significant impact on the formation and development of operational units of the railway police. The scientific research in the law enforcement practices of the transport police is of great relevance, since the operational search units of linear bodies enforce law and order and the safety of material values in special conditions of the railway transport functioning. There has been examined the place and significance of the operational units of the transport police for detecting and solving crimes at present time.

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