Tatiana B. Mordvinova, Aleksandr S. Skaridov. Law regulation of port state control to reduce ships’ vulnerability to cyber attacks

UDK: 341.225:004

Tatiana B. Mordvinova - Maritime Law Agency (St. Petersburg); Admiral Makarov State University of Maritime and Inland Shipping, mla@oceanlaw.ru

Aleksandr S. Skaridov - Admiral Makarov State University of Maritime and Inland Shipping, alexskar94@hotmail.com

Abstract. Today, the process of digitalization is increasingly active in the field of maritime transport, namely electronic navigation is developing, management processes are being automated, software products are being introduced into almost all ship systems such as communication, cargo handling and management, ship control, ship power equipment, power supply, etc. The development and adoption of law regulations aimed at reducing ships’ vulnerability to cyber-attacks, the actions of malicious software and, as a result, increasing navigation security is a function of state control in the field of the maritime industry, and a responsibility of a captain of the seaport. Cyber threats are not a new phenomenon for the maritime industry, but the regulatory framework for counteraction is in the process of formation. According to the authors, the main responsibility of e-information circulation control in relation to ships in ports should belong to the seaport administration, and the development of law regulations should belong to the government.

Keywords: maritime transport; state port control; state regulation; seaport administration; cyber threats; navigation security; legal support.


  1. Semenov, S. Morskaya kiberbezopasnost' [Maritime cybersecurity] // Morskiye vesti Rossii. — 2020. — № 10 / S. Semenov // http://www.morvesti.ru/analitika/1692/86359/ (data obrashcheniya: 29 aprelya 2022 g.).
  2. Satola, D. Towards a Dynamic Approach to Enhancing International Cooperation and Collaboration / D. Satola / Cyber security Legal Frameworks: Reflections on the Proceedings of the Workshop on Cyber security Legal Issues at the 2010 United Nations Internet Governance Forum. — Mitchell Hamline School of Law, 2011 // https://open.mitchellhamline.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1427&context=wmlr (date of access: 29 April, 2022).
  3. Moore, R. Cybercrime: Investigating High-Technology Computer Crime / R. Moore. — Second Edition. — Anderson Publishing, 2005.
  4. Andreyeva, A. Ye. Mezhdunarodno-pravovyye akty v sfere portovogo kontrolya bezopasnosti moreplavaniya [International legal acts in the field of port control of navigation safety] / A. Ye. Andreyeva // Yuridicheskiy zhurnal: mezhvuzovskiy sbornik nauchnykh statey. — Vyp. 7. — Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk : SakhGU, 2010.
  5. Dmitriyev, V. I. Obespecheniye bezopasnosti plavaniya [Ensuring the safety of navigation]: uchebnoye posobiye / V. I. Dmitriyev. — Moskva, 2005.
  6. Dr. Z. Oya Ozgayir. The Use of Port State Control in Maritime Industry and Application of the Paris Mou / Ozgayir Dr. Z. Oya // Ocean and Coastal Law Journal. — Vol. 14. — № 2. — 2008 // https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/234108972.pdf (date of access: 1 May, 2022).
  7. Ho-Sam Bang Port State Jurisdiction and Article 218 of the UN Convention on the Law of Sea // Journal of Maritime Law and Commerce. — 2009. — Vol. 40. — № 2 // https://ssrn.com/abstract=1461095 (date of access: 1 May, 2022).
  8. Molenaar, J. Erik Port State Jurisdiction: Towards Mandatory and Comprehensive Use // The law of the Sea: Progress and Prospects / J. Molenaar; D. Freestone, R. Barnes, D. Ong (eds). — Oxford : Oxford University Press, 2006.
  9. Fitzgerald F. Brian Port State Jurisdiction and Marine Pollution Under UNCLOS III / F. Fitzgerald // MLAANZ Journal. — 1995. — № 11.
  10. Kasoulides, C. George Port State Control and Jurisdiction / C. Kasoulides. — London : Martinus Nijhoff publishers, 1993.
  11. Stahl, W. The Uncharted Waters of Cyberspace: Applying the Principles of International Maritime Law to the Problem of Cyber security / W. Stahl // Georgia Journal of International and Comparative Law. — 2011. — № 40(1).

Download full text of article

Другие статьи автора или выпуска: