Yury Iv. Petrov - Candidate of Historical Sciences, docent, associate professor of the department of customs law and organization of the customs affairs, Law Institute of the Russian University of Transport
Abstract. The paper deals with the government measures of Catherine II, aimed at developing land and waterways in Russia, as the empress’s understanding of the transport industry role in the development of trade, industry and the entire economy. Practical steps in the transport business were connected with new personnel appointments and giving broad authority to the industry-leading department of the State Road Construction Office. The paper presents the provisions of the Charter with the goals of the Office, as well as the report of the new head of the Road department with a detailed analysis of the state roads construction and repairing technologies through the years, and considerations about the further construction and repair of roads and bridges. The paper shows the importance that the Empress gave to the waterways. She paid great attention to the construction and operation of canals. The Empress's special care was the Vyshnevolotskaya water system, to which she paid close attention and which she personally visited many times. For a long time, the lack of a legal base was a serious obstacle to the trade of Russian merchants through waterways. The analysis of the Merchant Shipping Charter of 1781 has shown how many controversial issues were solved with its introduction, which rights and obligations of ship owners, their employers and employees were determined, which finally led to the expansion of trade relations in the country and outside.
Keywords: history; transport; roads; Catherine II; decrees; legislation.
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