Vasiliy N. Gutsulyak. Proselyte norms in Russian and International maritime law
Vasiliy N. Gutsulyak - Doctor of Law, professor, head of the department “Maritime Law” of the Law Institute of the Russian University of Transport, honorary worker of the Navy, president of the International Maritime Law Association, leading expert of the Center for the promotion of autonomous navigation technologies ‘MARINET RUT’
Abstract. Sea transport is one of the most high-tech modes of transport, “absorbing” all the new achievements of science and technology. It is impossible to imagine a modern ship without a whole complex of technical means to enforce its security and prevent pollution of the marine environment. A new stage in the development of international shipping was the emergence of maritime autonomous surface ships with various levels of automation, allowing reducing the number of crew on board or even completely abandon its services, using autonomous navigation technologies. Scientific and technological progress gives rise to the necessity for a clear legal regulation of the interaction between a man and technology, which are to provide safety standards (proselyte norms) that have their own characteristic features. The current paper has presented an etymological analysis of the term “proselyte” taking into account domestic and foreign sources, formulates the author's definition of a proselyte norm, which, according to the author, should contain a technical requirement in a specific digital expression and/or “correlate” with technology (technical device). An important feature of proselyte norms is that they do not operate in isolation from other legal norms. Moreover, sometimes the implementation of certain legal norms is impossible without the application of proselyte norms. By their legal nature, proselyte norms are social norms, since they are aimed at achieving a certain social effect. All conclusions of the author have been illustrated with specific examples. The current paper has also presented the author’s classification of proselyte norms within the framework of maritime law, depending on the content of the disposition, on the applied method of legal regulation, on the system of law in which it functions, on legal force and on a lawmaking subject. Much attention has been paid to such types of proselyte norms as international and national technical standards. Finally, the current paper has pointed out the necessity for further research on the legal nature of proselyte norms, their features, functions, their implementation procedure and the ways to improve their efficiency.
Keywords: proselyte norm; Russian Maritime Law; international law; maritime autonomous surface ship; UN Convention on Maritime Law; International Maritime Organization; SOLAS Convention; national technical standards.
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