Aleksandra M. Lobanova. Systemic problems of cross-border exchange of electronic transport documents in the context of digitalization

UDK: 004:334.021:341.24:656

Aleksandra M. Lobanova - Candidate of Economic Sciences, docent, associate professor of the department ‘Informational technologies in jurisprudence and management documentation’ of the Law Institute of the Russian University of Transport

Abstract. The digital transformation of economic sectors creates both completely new challenges and new requirements for existing practices and agreements, and this directly concerns transport and accompanying documents in the activities of Russian transport and logistics, such as invoices (bill of lading), certificates for international road freights and others. Taking into account the acute urgency of organizing cross-border electronic exchange of legally significant transport documents, the current paper has presented the analysis of the mechanism for ensuring the legal significance and power of a document in the cross-border exchange of paper documents, since it has already been formed and now works in cross-border international cooperation. The formed organizational and technological mechanisms, based on information and communication technologies, must maintain the same level of legal power and significance of an electronic document, which is already inherent in a paper document. The paper has systematized the organizational and technological mechanisms for the exchange of electronic transport and shipping documents, such as the unification of format requirements, including an international bill of lading, communication systems to support the exchange of electronic documents, electronic signature of documents, cross-border space of trust, inclusion in the mechanism of a trusted third party and the formation of infrastructure of trusted third parties, mechanisms for ensuring the interoperability of systems, the use of the capabilities of services of digital platforms. These mechanisms have various degrees of approximation to the level of ensuring the legal significance and strength of a paper document, as well as restrictions, and they operate either at the regional or at the narrow industry level. The presented study results made it possible to formulate the questions that should be answered to ensure the cross-border exchange of electronic documents of legal significance.

Keywords: apostille; interoperability of systems; consular legalization of a document; international bill of lading; digital platform; ecosystem of digital transport ports of entry; legal significance of a document.


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